Table 1 presents summary statistics. As can be seen, 5% of all agreements were concluded between 1982 and 2012 in the form of a treaty, which characterizes the use of the treaty. 20% of all agreements were cancelled during the observation period. The average agreement was valid for 15.26 years. Of the agreements that are no longer in force, the average shelf life is 7.3 years. The LPPC values are between 17 and 17, with an average value of 0.10 euros. On average, 50 per cent of Senate seats were held by the presidential party at the time the agreement was signed. In 71 percent of the agreements, the government was divided, with the White House held by one party, the Senate, the House of Representatives or both by the other. Taken together, these figures indicate that the average agreement could not have been adopted in the form of a treaty without multi-party support, making the treaty a potentially costly instrument. 62 For a discussion on the importance and difficulty of measuring compliance with international agreements see Downs, George W., Rocke, David M.
Barsoom, Peter N., Is the Good News Compliance Good News About Cooperation?, 50 Int`l Org. 379 (1996). In the case of agreements between Congress and the executive branch and executive agreements concluded under the treaties, the nature of the termination may be dictated by the underlying contract or by the underlying status on which the agreement is based.189 For example, in the case of contract-based executive agreements, the Senate may condition its approval of the underlying contract on the requirement: 190 With respect to the executive agreements of Congress, Congress may prescribe the termination of the statute to approve or implement the agreement.191 The contractual clause – Article II, Section 2, Clause 2 of the Constitution – gives the President the power to enter into contracts by acting with the “deliberation and approval” of the Senate. 21 Many scholars have concluded that the Framers intend to be “advice” and “consent” as separate aspects of the contracting process.22 23 President George Washington seems to have understood that the Senate had such an advisory role, but 24 he and other early presidents quickly opposed it. 25 In the modern practice of contracting, the executive generally assumes responsibility for negotiations, and the Supreme Court stated in Diktum that the presidential power to negotiate contracts is exclusive.26 44 108 AJIL Unbound (2014) is available www.cambridge.org/core/journals/american-journal-of-international-law/ajil-unbound available; See also Bradley, note 9 above, at 85 (accept with Hathaway that the different use of contracts and executive agreements does not reflect a recognizable logic).