Syria Peace Agreements

The Committee`s third negotiating meeting, made up of 45 members of 15 members from the government, opposition and civil society, began at the end of August 2020. Pedersen said he had received “a strong signal of support” from “major international actors” and “all parties in the Constitutional Commission” for the continuation of the peace process. Hadi al-Bahra, one of the opposition leaders, and Ahmad Kuzbari, on behalf of the Syrian government, were co-chairs of the meeting. [108] Launched in March 2012, the Kofi Annan Peace Plan (Joint Special Envoy for the United Nations and the Arab League)[10] was aimed at forcing the Syrian government and the opposition to establish a ceasefire and to force the Syrian government to engage associations of defenders on their aspirations and causes. After considering on 12 April that both sides had agreed to a ceasefire, the United Nations had to admit as early as 1 May that both sides were violating it. In May 2013, a joint proposal between the United States and Russia on the organization of a peace conference on Syria[1] was published, the eighth round of the Astana process on Syrian peace began in Astana. [97] The talks aimed to end nearly seven years of conflict in the country, with the humanitarian crisis in the besieged eastern Ghouta suburb of Damascus. [98] The head of the delegation of the Syrian Arab Republic called for the “immediate and unconditional withdrawal of foreign troops from Syrian territory”, including Turkish and American forces. [99] It is equally important that former Lebanese Foreign Minister Gibran Basil publicly stated on 12 September that Hezbollah was “considering” withdrawing from Syria. Such a withdrawal would be obligatory for any political process, and Basil is a staunch ally of Hezbollah who would not have spoken incidentally about such a critical subject. On the ground, there are signs that this scenario could occur, including the authorities who are bringing down Hezbollah`s iconography in the Bab Touma district of Damascus and refusing to repeat Iran`s line on the agreement. These measures are ongoing and are microscopic, such as the refusal to implement long-standing agreements with Iran, such as those of a third-party GSM operator, or to give Tehran the right to export phosphates (already agreed in January 2017).

The seventh round of the Astana process on peace in Syria began in Astana with the support of Russia and Iran. [95] Discussions have maintained previous agreements on the Astana process on the exchange of prisoners, prisoners of war and missing persons. The guarantor countries – Russia, Turkey and Iran – confirmed the consensus on the need to find a political solution in accordance with UN Security Council Resolution 2254. [96] After more than eight years of war, the prospects for a political solution in Syria appear to have been dampened by the Geneva talks. Syrian President Bashar al-Assad has made it clear that his government is not bound by any agreement that could be reached by a pro-Damascus delegation during the talks negotiated by the United Nations Republic in Geneva, a constitutional commission designed by Moscow; Meanwhile, the turkish-backed opposition continues to make unrealistic demands for a political transition that would lead to Assad`s impeachment. While there is talk of peace in Syrian political circles again, the Syrian regime has recently enacted a new law that rations state-subsidized bread with four loaves per day and is unable to feed its own citizens. Meanwhile, photos of appalling queues at Syrian gas stations have gone viral on Facebook and Twitter, a sign of economic paralysis and the government`s inability to tackle growing problems. These stations are occupied by soldiers armed with rifles, who often use gunfire to calm an angry mob. The Syrian pound continues to collapse against the U.S. dollar and is now listed at 2,200 lira.