Shareholder agreements that prescribe third-party valuations often do not involve hiring a single valuation expert, but require each party to recruit its own valuation expert. In these cases, shareholder agreements must include provisions relating to the compatibility of differences between valuations. If the differences are not significant (for example. B within 10%, measured from one of the valuations), one can often conclude a value corresponding to the difference between the two. When valuation formulas are used, they are often based on a predetermined multiple of historical accounting gains or pre-defined accounting values. The use of predefined formulas can lead to inequalities for several reasons. In particular, business values are influenced by changes in internal and external factors, and a given formula does not reflect all of these changes. For example: Corporation officers may also be elected to maintain consistency in the operation of the business. In this way, senior managers are not dismissed by new shareholders who can acquire the majority.
In the event of a shareholder dispute, the shareholder contract may include specific requirements that impose how to resolve them. It may involve convening a mediator at what stage of the dispute and dictating who will be. The right to the first refusal allows shareholders to buy the shares that another shareholder first wishes to sell before the shares are sold to third parties. This allows shareholders to keep their percentage and protects them from unpleasant shareholders. A drag-along on the right is the rearview mirror in front of a piggyback on the right; it is a provision that allows a majority shareholder to compel a minority shareholder to participate in the sale of a company. The majority owner who goes through saturation must give the minority shareholder the same price, conditions and conditions as any other seller. Drag along rights are supposed to protect the majority shareholder. In other words, the economic ratio used in each formula should normally serve as a proxy for distributed cash flows. Distributable cash flow can be defined as cash flow that can be distributed to owners without affecting the operational viability of the business7.7 Distributed cash flow can be measured discreetly by adjusting expected EBITDA for unsecured expenses and tax consequences, working capital requirements and resulting investments.